For many decades, anti-cancer compounds and drugs have been screened for anti-cancer activities on human cancer cell lines cultured as suspensions or as adherent cell lines. This method is known as the 2D cell culture method. However, the results obtained from this method do not show translation to in vivo efficacy in animal models of cancer and in the clinic. The main reason for this is that the cancer cell lines grown in 2D culture do not recapitulate the complexity of tumors found in patients in terms of tumor architecture, tumor microenvironment, and the heterogeneity of genetic mutations.
The 3D Organoid model was developed to overcome the shortcomings of the 2D method. Here the cancer cells derived from human cancers are grown into organoids which have the characteristics of tumors in terms of architecture (histology) and genetic heterogeneity. They have been shown to maintain the characteristics of the tumor taken from the patient.
The patient derived organoids (PDOs) are valuable tools to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of clinical drug candidates in drug discovery programs in Cancer. The results obtained from the organoid screen are more predictive of efficacy in patients as they take into account the accessibility of drug to tumor cells across barriers and the heterogeneity of mutations.
Patient Derived Organoids (PDO) significantly improve the translational success for anti-cancer therapeutics in clinical trials.
TheraIndx has a library of Patient Derived Organoids (representing a range of cancers) with accompanying characterisation data (genotype, multi-omics, histopathology, cancer biology drug pathways).
These PDOs can be used for through the drug discovery and development process such as in